Reader experience with 404s #

There are many days when I don't feel like working on my project. I use this feeling to "productively procrastinate" on things that I've been wanting to do but haven't done yet. Earlier this week I decided to tackle two related problems:

  1. I want to know which pages are reachable from the home page. I can then review the ones that aren't reachable and consider adding them if they're finished.
  2. I want to make suggestions on the 404 page, but only to pages that are reachable from the home page. There are a whole bunch of random pages I have that aren't finished or useful, and I don't want to use those for suggestions.

Little details #

On each of my pages you'll notice the main element: interactive diagrams that visually explain a concept. But there are lots of other techniques I use too. Unfortunately, I don't remember all of these when I'm writing a new page. I decided to make a catalog of things I've used so that I can remember to use them on the new pages I write.

I've been working on this for a few months and it's still incomplete but I decided I should share it: https://www.redblobgames.com/making-of/little-things/

Are there other little details on my pages that I've forgotten about? Probably! I will update the document as I think of them.

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Brainstorming with reversal #

In the previous two posts I described how I sometimes approach a problem by trying to arrange it into a matrix. Sometimes that doesn't work and I instead try to look at the problem backwards. As an example, consider procedural map generation. I often start with a noise function, adding octaves, adjusting parameters, and adding layers. I'm doing this because I'm looking for maps with certain properties.

Map of a procedurally generated island

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Brainstorming with factoring #

In the last post I described how I sometimes describe a problem with a matrix, and then look at the matrix transpose to see if it gives me new ideas. Another technique I use is to look for a factoring.

In algebra, factoring transforms a polynomial like 5x² + 8x - 21 into (x + 3)·(5x - 7). To solve 5x² + 8x - 21 = 0, we can first factor into (x + 3)·(5x - 7) = 0. Then we say that x + 3 = 0 or 5x - 7 = 0. Factoring turns a problem into several easier problems.

x 3
5x 5x² 15x
-7 -7x -21

Let's look at an example: I have six classes, File, EncryptedFile, GzipFile, EncryptedGzipFile, BzipFile, EncryptedBzipFile. I can factor these into a matrix:

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Brainstorming with transpose #

Sometimes I get stuck and look for a way to think about a problem a different way. There are some problems that you can view in the form of a matrix/table. The structure looks like this:

A B C D E
1 A1 B1 C1 D1 E1
2 A2 B2 C2 D2 E2
3 A3 B3 C3 D3 E3
4 A4 B4 C4 D4 E4
5 A5 B5 C5 D5 E5

There are rows and columns, and I'm trying to work on the cells. Let's try an example from a simple game:

Attack Defend Special
Fighter sword armor slam
Mage fireball reflect freeze
Thief dagger dodge disarm

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Improving hexagon map storage diagram #

Last week, I decided to improve the map storage section of the hexagon guide. This section had a diagram that suggested the use of a 2D array, but then it presented formulas that didn't look like what was shown. Reader feedback made me realize this section was confusing. I was mixing two separate steps here.

  1. Store the map in a 2D array.
  2. Slide the rows to the left to save space.
Hexagon map storage: grid, and also slide left

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Improving island shaping for map generation #

One of my goals for 2019 is to improve my existing pages. This week I improved the island map section of my noise-based map generation page.

Island map generation: you figure it out

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Improving the 2D Noise page #

One of my goals for 2019 is to improve my existing pages. Yesterday I decided to work on my old 2D noise page. We normally use Perlin/Simplex noise to make terrain heightmaps, but on that page I used Fourier transforms instead. Perlin/Simplex noise are a fast approximation of the things you can get from Fourier transforms.

The 3D renderer on that page always bothered me. It was one of my early experiments with WebGL. I had never been able to figure out exactly what I didn't like or how to fix it.

I decided to improve the renderer.

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Hex grid guide load time, part 2 #

Last year I reimplemented my hexagon grid guide with the goals of making it easier for me to add content and also making it possible to load faster. I was able to speed up load time significantly by pre-rendering the SVG on the server. This is called "SSR with Rehydration" on Google's rendering tech page.

screenshot of Google Lighthouse score
Load time with the prerendered SVG

Last week I experimented with this a bit more. At load time, I was replacing the static SVGs with interactive SVGs. However, there's no need to do this immediately. I changed it to wait until the diagram was visible on screen (using IntersectionObserver). This helps quite a bit! The "time to interactive" score goes from 9.6sec to 4.9sec and the overall page speed score goes from 63 to 89:

screenshot of Google Lighthouse score
Load time with deferred interactivity

I was wondering if I could make it even faster by prerendering only some things on the server ("CSR with Prerendering" on Google's rendering tech page). The page shrinks from 633k to 179k! And the page score goes from 89 to 96. Time to interactive goes from 4.9s to 3.5s:

screenshot of Google Lighthouse score
Load time with deferred SVG

Great! However, it started to bring back the problems that I had solved last year. This version doesn't allow printing the page, loading it without Javascript, using "Reader modes" (including Pocket, Instapaper, RSS, etc.), or Ctrl+F to find diagram text on the page. The more I used the page, the more little glitches I found. None of these are super important, but they're not going to get better. In contrast, the load time will continue to get better as cpu and network speeds increase, HTTP/2 is adopted, and compression protocols improve (Brotli, HPACK, etc.). Another consideration is accessibility. I've been told that most screen readers support Javascript, but deferring the creation of SVG using IntersectionObserver means the SVG may never get created, so it would have the same problem as printing and Ctrl+F.

I decided to keep the pre-rendered static SVG for now, with deferred interactive SVG. It's simpler for me and I have fewer corner cases to deal with. I'll revisit this in the future when I update my A* pages to load faster.

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Orbits of planets #

When I'm not feeling particularly inspired to work on a bigger project, I explore topics that might be useful later. I have been reading about planetary exploration, orbital mechanics, lunar chemistry, and other space topics. Along the way I found John Carlos Baez's blog post about the Pentagram of Venus. What a cool image! I wanted to try it myself. So I did.

Orbits of planetsOrbits of planets

Play with it yourself!

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